(IS-2009-159) Green, High Performance Schools
This article from Air Quality Sciences explains the benefits of public and private schools that combine energy conservation with improved indoor air quality. A major concern is the increased initial cost to build a green school, even though the operating costs over a 40-year (or more) lifetime are expected to be lower for a green building than traditional construction that meets building codes. Good indoor air quality is claimed to improve student attendance and performance. The chemical constituents of indoor air are presented. Among the pollutants are volatile organic compounds, mold, and formaldehyde. The impact on asthma and autism is discussed.
(IS-2009-158) Greening of Corporate America
This article from McGraw Hill Construction surveyed executives to determine changes in attitudes toward sustainability between 2006 and 2009. A small of majority of executives now sees business opportunities in sustainable products and a benefit to their companies to promote sustainability. The most popular sustainable activities are recycling, employee engagement, green buildings, and involvement with programs from governments and non-governmental agencies. Practices by many companies are presented.
(IS-2009-157) Creating Business-Class VoIP; Ensuring End-to-End Service Quality and Performance in a Multi-Vendor Environment
This article from Frost & Sullivan explains the challenges of using VoIP (Voice over IP) for telephone services. As of 2007 about 50% of companies surveyed were planning to substitute VoIP for switched telephony services. Although costs may be lower and flexibility increased, more responsibility rests on the company to ensure quality of service and availability. VoIP telephone service is sharing the same path and bandwidth as data traffic. Also, more responsibility rests at the periphery of the network with the company than with a switch that may be maintained by a telephone company.
(IS-2009-156) Doing Well by Doing Good? Green Office Buildings
This report from the Center for the Study of Energy Markets at the University of California at Berkeley examines the economic impact of green buildings. Buildings that are certified as green command higher rents by about 3-6% and sell for about 16% more. These conclusions are based on a study of more than 10,000 buildings. Buildings consume about 40% of the world energy and emit about 30% of the worldwide green house gases. Buildings were rated using Energy Star and LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design). The statistical methodology is described in detail.
(IS-2009-155) Solid State Lighting: Benchmarking Analysis
This paper from Cleantech Approach evaluates the market potential for sold state lighting. Lighting accounts for 20-25% of U.S. electricity consumption. 40% of lighting is used in buildings, both commercial and residential. LEDs outperform incandescent and halogen lights on a payback basis, and are a slight improvement over compact fluorescent bulbs. Detailed analyses are included.
(IS-2009-154) The Smart Grid: An Introduction
This booklet from the U.S. Department of Energy introduces the electric grid and explains technologies that could improve reliability to create a “smart grid.” The state of the electric grid reliability is discussed, including the increased rate of failures leading to blackouts. Topics for a smart grid are presented including AMI (Advanced Metering Infrastructure), visualization (distributed sensors), and distributed generation. Technologies and projects for a smart grid are mentioned.
(IS-2009-153) A National Assessment of Demand Response Potential
This report for the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission in the U.S. fulfills a Congressional mandate to explore the potential benefits of electric demand response. Under a scenario of full participation, the projected growth over 10 years in peak consumption could be reduced by about 20% for no net gain in the peak. Possible demand response programs range from limited to advanced programs that include dynamic power pricing and wide deployment of advanced metering infrastructures. The greatest impact of demand response is in regions that use a lot of air-conditioning. Demand response techniques need to be studied, coordinated across states, deployed nationwide, encouraged with federal tax policies, and accompanied by consumer education.
(IS-2009-152) Fan Industry - Facing up to the Energy Challenges
This article from the Air Movement and Control Association (AMCA) presents the history and status of standards for measuring the energy efficiency of fans. Considerable technical detail is provided. Methods for measuring efficiency are discussed. The long-term objective is to reduce the energy consumption of fans. National and international standards are referenced.
(IS-2009-151) Quantifying "Green" Value: Assessing the Applicability of the CoStar Studies
This paper from the Green Building Finance Consortium analyzes a March 2008 study that claimed LEED-certified buildings rented for a 36% premium over non-LEED buildings. Energy Star buildings had a 9% premium in rents. The methodology used in theses calculations was critiqued especially the fact that real estate prices were rising fast during the period of the study and the granularity of building detail was missing. Investment decisions in green buildings require both qualitative and quantitative analyses.
(IS-2009-150) High Performance Green Building: What's it Worth?
This paper from a consortium of organizations in British Columbia and Washington state explores the relationship between green features in a building and the financial impact on the building rents and value. It seeks to link building designers with the financial community. Valuation specialists performed this study by evaluating three buildings in Vancouver, Seattle, and Portland. The impact of green choices on building values is discussed. Various methods for establishing valuations are considered based on cost, recent sales, and income generated from rents.
(IS-2009-149) Green Building Impact and Market Report 2009
This article from Greener World Media surveys the growth of LEED buildings in 2009. Although the number of building starts did not grow significantly, the square footage of LEED development expanded about 40%. The reasons why are explored. Water shortages are expected to deter new building construction, rather than energy shortages. Details about the benefits of LEED buildings are presented.
(IS-2009-148) The Home Area Network: Architectural Considerations for Rapid Innovation
This article from Trilliant, an electric metering company, examines the pros and cons of including a gateway in an electric meter. The gateway translates communications telemetry between a neighborhood network and a home network. Although the number of smart meters to be deployed may reach 100 million over the next five years and half may include gateways, the number of households with home networks may reach only 20% by 2013. There are technical challenges for the gateway to communicate successfully with a home network if the gateway uses radio or power line carrier, depending on the meter location. Also, a gateway in a meter cannot adopt the variety of competitive home network technologies. The conclusion is that a gateway should be in a home device, not in a meter.
(IS-2009-147) Industrialization in the Construction Sector
This report written by the National Research Council of Canada explores the potential for using more factory processes in building construction. Increases depend on improved business models for collaboration between the building and manufacturing industries, technological innovations and transfer, and appropriate regulations. In 2007 about 8% of Canadian construction was prefabricated. This report explores two scenarios for 2025: increase from 8% to 25%; increase from 8% to 10%.
(IS-2009-146) LEEDing Retail to Greener Pastures
This article from Research Review explains the LEED rating system for buildings. The LEED rating is based on a weighed score of sustainable site, water efficiency, energy and atmosphere, materials and resources, indoor environmental quality, and innovation and design process. A new LEED rating for retail spaces is discussed. LEED for retail weighs the scoring with energy being the largest constituent in the score. Some California cities now require all large private-sector developments to achieve LEED status.
(IS-2009-145) Clean Tech Job Trends 2009
This paper from Clean Edge, Inc. explores the creation of new employment opportunities in the “clean tech” industries. Clean tech is defined as renewable materials and energy, use of natural resources more efficiently, and reduction of pollution and toxic wastes. Job locations and average salaries are presented. Colleges offering training for these positions are highlighted. Opportunities in electric smart grid are discussed. Resources for seeking these jobs are listed.
(IS-2009-144) Green Noise or Green Value? Measuring the Price Effects of Environmental Certification in Commercial Buildings
This report from the University of Reading in England examines the financial benefits of green buildings. These building offer premiums in rental prices and sales prices. This study is based on LEED and Energy-Star certified buildings in the U.S. Detailed calculations are included. Certification now applies to only a small percentage of buildings, but is growing.
(IS-2009-143) How Real is the Vision of a "Smart Grid"?
This report from GP Bullhound of the U.K. presents stock analysts’ views of investment opportunities in smart grids. They review companies involved with smart grids such as Silver Spring Networks, Trilliant Networks, and Tendril. Smart grid and demand-response are described. There is doubt about the economic benefits of a smart grid. The benefits depend on consumer behavior change, concerted efforts by all stakeholders, and new business models.
(IS-2009-142) Hidden Reservoir: Why Water Efficiency is the Best Solution for the Southeast
This report from American Rivers analyzes the water supply in the Southeast U.S. The long-term solution is not to build dams, but to improve efficiencies. Examples include stopping leaks, charging for waste water, improving landscaping to minimize waste, increasing household water fixture efficiency, using gray water, and maintaining rivers.
(IS-2009-141) The Digital Single Market: A key to unlock the potential of the knowledge based economy
This presentation from a European Union Commissioner examines the impediments to the growth of Internet usage in the European Union. A key limitation in Europe is regulation that varies by country. Rights to digital media are not clear across Europe and availability on a variety of devices is limited. The Commissioner warned that only U.S. citizens might have the right to European content from sources such as Google. The presenter explained the need for net neutrality.
(IS-2009-140) SRSM & Beyond Project
This document from the Energy Retail Association of Great Britain provides requirements for electricity and gas smart meters. Communications capabilities to a wide area network and to a home network are specified. Customer displays of energy consumption are included. Detailed specifications are presented.
(IS-2009-139) Ethernet Point-to-Point vs. PON - A comparison of two optical access network technologies and the different impact on operations
This paper from Keymile compares fiber optics networks that use active Ethernet Point-to-Point (PtP) versus PON (Passive Optical Network). PtP depends on a fiber optics line from optical multiplexer in the central office to each subscriber, while PON uses a single source and splitters with filters for each subscriber. Upstream PON uses a time–division multiplexed time slot assigned to each subscriber. PtP could be terminated in a building equipment room. PtP can offer higher data rates than PON. PtP might be suited for large companies. The growth of IPTV may push Internet speed requirements to 100 Mbps with 1000 Mbps a possible requirement in 10 years. Performance and cost comparisons are included.
(IS-2009-138) Five Emerging U.S. Public Finance Models: Powering Clean-Tech Economic Growth and Job Creation
This report from Clean Edge, Inc. examines financing options for U.S. clean tech investments. The financing options include the Green Bank, Clean Energy Victory Bonds (like World War II Victory Bonds), tax credit bonds, federal loan guarantees, and Clean Tech city Funds (operated by about a 10 cities now). The Green Bank would be created by the federal government, like the Export-Import Bank. This report argues that strong federal involvement is required.
(IS-2009-137) GreenFormat, an Online Tool Providing Structure for Environmental Product Evaluation
This paper introduces the GreenFormat from the Construction Specifications Institute. The GreenFormat is a web-based tool that provides data about the sustainable aspects of building products. Factors include life-cycle costs, end-of-life, and climate-change data. GreenFormat depends on reporting by manufacturers that complies with ISO 14201 guidelines for responsible data reporting.
(IS-2009-136) NTCA 2009 Broadband/Internet Availability Survey Report
This survey from the National Telecommunications Cooperative Association (NTCA) reports on deployment of Internet access by NTCA members in 2009. 98% of members (rural telephone companies) offer broadband Internet access; of those 98% utilize DSL with 59% delivering via fiber. Some use wireless (licensed and unlicensed), satellite, and cable modem. Data rates vary from 200 kbps to 6 Mbps or more. 89% of operators face competition from cable and wireless companies. The broadband subscription rate by customers is 37%. 54% of operators see VoIP (Internet telephony) as a threat. 75% of operators offer video services.
(IS-2009-135) 802.11n Drives an Architectural Evolution
This article from Hewlett-Packard (HP) explains how to maximize performance of a wireless local area network (WLAN) using 802.11n radios. HP recommends moving from centralized LAN management to access points that are controlled across the LAN.
(IS-2009-134) Designing Space to Support Knowledge Work
This paper from the Environmental Design Research Associates explores optimal designs for an office to house a communications design organization. A quantitative measure of office space layout is presented with a qualitative description of social interaction among the occupants. The effect of office layout on the work process is explored. A corporate space redesign is presented with survey results before and after the change.
(IS-2009-133) Do Green Buildings Make Dollars and Sense?
This paper from the University of San Diego and CB Richard Ellis surveyed tenants of green buildings. 534 tenants in 154 Energy Star buildings were surveyed. Rents of green buildings are higher. Working in a green building is important for tenants. Methods for measuring productivity in green buildings are discussed. It is noted that green buildings are more intensively managed. “Our results continue to support the notion of green paying off.”
(IS-2009-132) Estimating the Exaflood
This article from the Discovery Institute in Seattle explores the data impact of video and rich media on the Internet. U.S. Internet traffic is expected to reach 1021 bytes (one zettabyte). The 2015 Internet will be 50 times larger than the 2006 Internet. Applications in 2015 will include movie downloads, video calls (the largest volume of data on the Internet), cloud computing, gaming, IPTV, business IP, and other applications (phone, e-mail, photos, music, and web browsing). The history of the growth of Internet traffic is presented.
(IS-2009-131) Retrofits that Deliver
This article from the National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) examines the benefit of retrofitting a lighting system. New indoor lighting can save energy and produce appropriate light levels (many spaces are over-lit). Other issues include choosing the correct lamps, maintenance, and the impact of solid state lighting such as LEDs.
(IS-2009-130) IPD Cost Code
This report from Investment Property Databank (IPD) of the U.K. examines the measurement of building performance. The IPD Cost Code, fifth edition, is introduced for measuring the cost performance of commercial property. Details are included for determining which costs to include. Categories for each element of cost are provided, including information technology and communications. Case studies for various organizations are presented. Methods for reducing costs are discussed.
(IS-2009-129) Towards a Smarter Future: Government Response to the Consultation on Electricity and Gas Smart Metering
This report from the U.K. Department of Energy and Climate Change explains the plans for smart electric and gas metering mandated by 2020. Residential meters must include displays. This document is the Government response to 270 public comments on questions posed by the Government. Centralized communications for smart meters is planned with local coordination.
(IS-2009-128) Satisfaction with Certified Green Buildings-an Inquiry of Building Occupants in Minnesota
This paper from Dovetail Partners reports on a survey of occupants of green buildings in Minnesota. The basic topic was whether nine green buildings that were LEED registered remained green after occupancy. Favorable findings were reported on dual-flush toilets, dimmer switches, exhaust fans, paints and materials with low volatile organic compounds (VOCs), rain barrels, tankless water heaters, Energy Star appliances, programmable thermostats, wood from responsibly-managed forests, and use of local materials. Better education for manufacturers, contractors, and users is recommended.
(IS-2009-127) Doubling Down on Green
This article from the National Real Estate Investor and the U.S. Green Building Council reports on a survey about green investments during the recession of 2009. While new construction in 2009 was near zero, 73% of developers retrofitted properties with green features. 66% of developers think that green features will become required by building codes. Green building space commands about 2% higher rents than non-green space. Tax incentives would promote the installation of green features. Two-thirds of developers and corporate leaders see green as important.
(IS-2009-126) Rolling Out Golden Shield in China's Second-Tier Cities
This report from China Origins Associates describes where China is investing in high tech surveillance. China plans to track the movements of every person in the country using video and facial recognition. All new commercial and residential buildings will be connected to the government network. This project is called Strengthening of Police Through Science and Technology. Partnerships with major Western technology companies are planned for this program.
(IS-2009-125) The smart way to display
This report from the Energy Saving Trust in the U.K. presents the findings form consumer research into user interfaces for energy management. Some of the findings include: use an analog indicator instead of numbers, use cost instead of energy consumed, interactivity should not be default mode, a portable display is not important, provide daily and cumulative consumption costs. Details of the study and focus group results are presented.
(IS-2009-124) Understanding ZigBee RF4CE
This article from the ZigBee Alliance presents extensions to the ZigBee protocol for networking consumer electronics. The application-layer protocol is described along with a discovery process. The application language includes a generic profile and an application component for specific device functionality.
(IS-2009-123) ZigBee Wireless Sensor Applications for Health, Wellness and Fitness
This article from the ZigBee Alliance explains how ZigBee devices can carry messages defined by an IEEE standard for health care applications. Such applications might include monitoring vital signs, activity and motion, home safety, and physical fitness.
(IS-2009-122) ZigBee - WiFi Coexistence
This report by Schneider Electric examines interference between ZigBee and WiFi. In most residential situations the interference may delay ZigBee packets. If WiFi were used for high volume data such as video, the impact could be more severe. In that case, a frequency-agile version of ZigBee is recommended that can change frequency while in operation. Also, the interfering nodes should be separated by at least 2 meters. Test results are presented.
(IS-2009-121) The Web of Things
This paper from Tridium explores technology that allows devices to be networked using versions of the Internet protocol. The author argues for using the 6LoWPAN Internet specification both for wireless (the original intent) and for wired networks including serial links. The goal is to make device data available as Web services. Protocols for representing device messages (oBIX encoded in binary) and for encoding device packets (Chopan) are proposed. Unresolved issues include data security and scripting.
(IS-2009-120) Mobile WAN Optimization Can Help Cut Costs and Avoid Future Upgrades
This brochure from the Yankee Group explores how to deliver Internet access for mobile users that provides application performance comparable to a PC running at headquarters. Mobile WAN (Wide Area Network) optimization is introduced.
(IS-2009-119) Integrated Edge Services: The TCO Advantage
This brochure from the Yankee Group examines the technology needed by service providers to deliver Internet, TV, and voice. The challenges are to integrate these services into a digital platform and to accommodate higher data rates. Pressure to increase data rates is coming from increased video transport via the Internet. The equipment that handles these data stream consists of edge routers that interface with customers. To lower operating costs, the triple services of Internet, TV, and voice need to be fully integrated at the operations level. Operator cost models are provided.
(IS-2009-118) Wild About Widgets Differentiating Video Platforms in the Age of Internet TV
This brochure from The Diffusion Group examines plans to include Internet access capabilities within TV sets. The author cautions manufacturers that a minimalist incorporation of Internet capability will limit market share and revenue. The Diffusion Group surveyed 2000 adults and found overwhelming support for using widgets (icons) to access Internet-based services via a TV. Widgets might access favorite TV shows, movies, weather, or news. The conclusion is that the Internet should enhance traditional TV viewing, rather than deliver social networks or online videos. Customers are willing to pay about $25 more for a TV with built-in widgets
(IS-2009-117) TVE vs. OTT - Are You Ready for a Throwdown?
This brochure from The Diffusion Group explores the battle between cable TV delivery of TV programs and movies versus direct access by customers via the Internet. Cable operators are proposing TV Everywhere that allows Internet access only to cable TV subscribers. There will be a battle between the walled-garden approach of TV Everywhere and distribution available to all via the Internet. The author predicts the growth in Internet TV access from 20 million in 2009 to 63 million in 2014 with both walled-garden approach and open access co-existing.
(IS-2009-116) Over-the-Top, Cord-Cutting, and the Consumer
This brochure from The Diffusion Group explores those market segments attracted to TV programs delivered via the Internet. It explores how many are using Internet delivery in place of broadcast of cable TV, as opposed to supplementing these. It proposes a new offering of 20-30 channels plus selected movies customized to the viewer. Two-thirds of 2000 surveyed are interested in replacing or supplementing or both a custom service with a traditional cable TV service. Some demographic details are included. Those favoring replacement are seeking lower cost and personalized TV.
(IS-2009-115) Online Video Threats and Opportunities for Pay TV Operators
This brochure from The Diffusion Group examines the business opportunities in Internet video distribution instead of inserting the program in a TV channel on cable. Some Pay TV content provides are allowing subscribers to access the Pay TV content via the Internet, but with restrictions or for an additional fee per month.
(IS-2009-114) The Business Dynamics of Pay TV versus Internet TV
This report from The Diffusion Group examines the growth of Internet access to entertainment that is now offered as Pay TV. Many viewers are now choosing to watch advertiser-supported video via the Internet on computers and mobile devices. So far, advertising revenues from on-line video does not match broadcast ad revenues. Furthermore, cable operators are generally not licensed to show content on the Internet. The content producers are exploring distribution channels that are not limited to cable TV channels.
(IS-2009-113) New communication behaviours in a Web 2.0 world – Changes, challenges and opportunities in the era of the Information Revolution
This white paper from Alcatel-Lucent explores the impact on business of Web2.0. Internet advertising will grow as more time is spent on the Internet instead of watching TV. This advertising will be tailored to users’ preferences. Mobile usage will grow with dual-mode WiFi;/mobile phones. Emerging trends include collaboration, social interaction, personalization, active participation, less face-to-face communications. Web 2.0 is characterized by more user interaction. The Web 2.0 technologies market will grow from $746 million in 2008 to $4.6 billion in 2013. The future beyond Web 2.0 is the semantic web that understands user requests.
(IS-2009-112) When Corporate Network Safety Starts at Employees' Homes - Protecting Your Network from Home Wireless Hackers
This brochure from WatchGuard Technologies explains techniques for making WiFi connections more secure. These methods involve programming the access point to suppress the SSID broadcast and encrypt the data. Further techniques include installing a proxy-based firewall, using strong passwords, avoiding malicious web sites, preventing connections to a bogus access point, allowing only known computers on the WiFi network, and using IPsec-based VPN for accessing a corporate network.
(IS-2009-111) The Future Branch Office
This white paper from Citrix examines the growth of branch offices that need full IT capabilities as employees are dispersed. The trend is to centralize the servers at headquarters while focusing on improving wide area networks (WANs) for access. As WAN performance increases, more applications and desktop functions can be run remotely. However, large files may be staged on local servers. Eventually, no IT staff will be needed at branch offices and policies will be centralized. With centralized IT, some services can easily be outsourced via cloud computing.
(IS-2009-110) Acceleration 101
This white paper from F5 Networks, Inc. explains techniques for improving throughput via a wide area network running Internet protocols. It explains methods such as balancing the loads based on traffic to multiple servers containing the same, compression, data duplication, caching, optimizing TCP, optimizing http and applications, and offloading SSL process (data encryption) to remote offices. Some data compressors can run up to 1 Gbps. Data duplication updates local caches based on changes in data streams.
(IS-2009-109) The Education "Last Mile" - Closing the Gap from School to Work
This report from the Intelligent Community Forum describes a project for 2010 to prepare people for work with the proper education. The objective of ICF is to match community job skills needed with the education offered in that community. Examples are presented from Canada, Taiwan, France, U.S. and Sweden.
(IS-2009-108) Unlocking Energy Efficiency in the U.S. Economy
McKinsey & Company has analyzed why the potential of $130-billion annual savings from energy efficiency is not exploited. They estimate that 23% in energy expenditures can be saved by 2020. The barriers to reaping these savings are lack of information and education, incentives and financing, codes and standards, and third-party involvement. A strategy is presented that includes recognizing energy efficiency as an important resource, developing national and regional programs, finding sources of funds, aligning suppliers, users, and governments, and fostering innovation.
(IS-2009-107) Networked Systems Herald the Next Evolution of Restroom Efficiency
This brochure from Sloan explains the benefits of networked plumbing fixture in restrooms. Usage and usage patterns can be monitored for preventive maintenance, traffic analysis, and potential water damage. Data are collected from the fixtures and delivered to a centralized facilities management display.
(IS-2009-106) ZebOS® 7.7 Network Platform Carrier Operation Maintenance Functions and Applications
This brochure from IP Infusion provides an overview of IEEE 802.ag, a standard for Ethernet Operations, Administration, and Maintenance (OAM). Ethernet OAM defines fault management functions, performance management functions, and network resilience functions. Acceptance of this paper for the CABA Information Library does not constitute endorsement of those portions of the brochure that describe the company’s software product.
(IS-2009-105) 2008-2009 Standards & Technology Annual Report
This annual report from the Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA) summarizes standards activities in the following fields: mobile and personal private radio and communications systems, point-to-point communications systems, multi-media access, satellite equipment and systems, user premises telecommunications requirements and cabling, terrestrial mobile multimedia multicast, vehicular telematics, and healthcare ICT. Also, the TIA hosts U.S. technical advisory group for ISO/IEC standards information technology equipment, cabling, optical radiation safety and laser equipment, fiber optics, and intelligent transport systems. The TIA is the project secretariat of the third generation partnership (Internet access via cell telephone network).
(IS-2009-104) Insulation Energy Savings: Key Issues and Performance Factors
This report from Honeywell explains the benefits of building insulation in achieving the national goal of energy consumption reduction in commercial buildings. Closed-cell spray polyurethane foam (ccSPF) insulation is described. This material is impervious to most heat flow and to vapor. It can be applied to building materials, roofs, and walls. An analysis of the performance of this material in various environments is presented.
(IS-2009-103) Understanding Cost-Effectiveness of Energy Efficiency Programs: Best Practices, Technical Methods, and Emerging Issues for Policy-Makers
This report from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency examines how to measure the effectiveness of energy efficiency programs. A combination of the following measurements are recommended: the participant cost test (PCT), the utility/program administrator cost test (PACT), the ratepayer impact measure test (RIM), the total resource cost test (TRC), and the societal cost test (SCT). Additional benefits include greenhouse gas reductions and a portfolio of renewables. Methods and examples for applying these measures are presented.
(IS-2009-102) ENERGY STAR Snapshot: Measuring Progress in the Commercial and Industrial Sectors
This report from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) examines trends in commercial and industrial building performance rating and certification. EPA ratings are used the most by schools and offices. The states leading in increased adoption of EPA ratings are California, Illinois, Ohio, and New York. The leading cities are Los Angeles, San Francisco, and Houston.
(IS-2009-101) IP for Smart Objects
This paper from the Internet Protocol for Smart Objects (IPSO) Alliance is an overview of the benefits of equipping devices with Internet protocol interfaces for communications. The Internet protocols are summarized. The claimed benefits of IP are open, lightweight, versatile, ubiquitous, scalable, manageable, stable, and end-to-end.
(IS-2009-100) Video Consumer Mapping Study
This report from Nielsen Media examines consumer preferences for viewing video. It examines shifts in practices with the introduction of streaming video via the Internet. The viewing of 376 Americans were observed in their homes for a few days each. Viewing was categorized by screen: TV, PC, mobile, and others (e.g., GPS, cinema). 98-99% of viewing is on the TV among all ages and uses live TV (not DVD or DVR). PC is the number-two medium, then radio, then print. TV views saw about 60 minutes of ads and promos per day. Consumers tend to under-report their TV viewing and over-report their PC and mobile viewing.
(IS-2009-99) 2008 Ex Post Load Impact Evaluation for Pacific Gas and Electric Company's SmartRate™ Tariff
This report from Pacific Gas and Electric describes a limited trial of time-of-use pricing of electricity among 10,000 customers. Peak charges were 60¢ per kWh for residential and 75¢ per kWh for non-residential customers; off-peak was 3¢ per kWh. The average load reduction for residential customers was 16.6% and reached 19.2% on a few critical days. Reductions by non-residential customers were slightly lower and decreased over time.
(IS-2009-98) A National Assessment of Demand Response Potential
This report from the U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) fulfills a congressional mandate to examine progress on demand response programs. FERC projected the effectiveness of demand response by 2019 under four levels of aggressiveness toward promoting demand response: business as usual, expanded business as usual, achievable participation, and full participation. Under the full participation scenario the projected growth in peak demand for electricity can be cut to zero from the projected 20% growth under the business-as-usual scenario. State-by-state analyses are presented along with recommendations for achieving each scenario.
(IS-2009-97) 6LoWPAN: Incorporating IEEE 802.15.4 into the IP Architecture
This paper from the Internet Protocol for Smart Objects (IPSO) Alliance describes a method for transmission IPv6 messages via an IEEE 802.15.4 radio (the radio used for ZigBee). IEEE 802.15.4 is a LoPAN (Low Powered Personal Area Network). IPv6 expand the Internet address space from 32 bits to 128 bits. This increases the size of message headers. Fragmentation of messages is introduced to simply routers. Details of the LoPAN protocol for IPv6 (6LoPAN) are presented.
(IS-2009-96) Lightweight IPv6 Stacks for Smart Objects: The Experience of Three Independent and Interoperable Implementations
This paper from the Internet Protocol for Smart Objects (IPSO) Alliance describes software to enable devices to communicate using IPv6 (Internet Protocol with an expanded address space.). Methods for data compression, and datagram fragmentation are specified. Code size and battery requirements are presented.
(IS-2009-95) Moving Toward Utility-Scale Deployment of Dynamic Pricing in Mass Markets
This paper from the Edison Foundation explores the deployment and performance of dynamic pricing systems for residential energy. The response of customers is facilitated by equipment that reminds them of high energy cost periods or equipment that manages energy consumption. Results from utility trials are presented.
(IS-2009-94) G.hn – Compatibility with Existing Home Networking Technologies
This is a paper from the HomeGrid Forum, a trade group promoting the adoption of the ITU-T standard called G.hn. G.hn defines transceivers for sending data on coaxial cables and electric power wires using power line carrier (PLC) technology. There are many existing PLC technologies deployed. G.hn has defined methods to coexist with some of these technologies. Dual-mode transceivers are proposed for interoperability between G.hn and legacy PLC devices. Co-existence with MoCA (Multimedia over Coax Alliance) specification is described.
(IS-2009-93) How the Internet of Things, Social Networks & creative collaboration will shape future market structure
This report from Harbor Research examines the parallels between the growth in social networking and networks of devices. Connected devices could potentially be anything that uses electricity. The author predicts, “In a collaborative device community, devices themselves can blog, send & receive messages, report status, share files and interact on a peer-to-peer basis along with humans.” A practical application is report product maintenance. This is described as a shift in information technology from “what happened” to “what is happening.” The benefits of collaborative development communities using social networks are explored.
(IS-2009-92) Assessment of Achievable Potential from Energy Efficiency and Demand Response Programs in the U.S.
This report from Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) examines energy efficiency and demand response programs that could reduce the growth in electricity consumption. The goals are to reduce the annual growth in consumption through 2030 from the historical 1.7% to 0.83% and even 0.68% under an ideal set of conditions. Likewise EPRI examined the goals of reducing the summer peak demand from 2.1% historically to 0.83% and to 0.53% ideally. To achieve these goals by 2030 will require a total investment of $41 to $63 billion depending on the target growth rate.
(IS-2009-91) Doing Business in a New Climate - A Guide to Measuring, Reducing and Offsetting Greenhouse Gas Emissions
This report from the David Susuki Foundation in Vancouver is a guide for companies of how to impact greenhouse gas emissions. Methods are proposed for measuring, reducing, and offsetting emissions. Examples of techniques used for emissions management by a variety of companies are presented.
(IS-2009-90) The Ocean: The Next Frontier in Renewable Energy?
This report from Greentech Media estimates the potential for generating energy from ocean activities. Ocean waves, current, and tides could supply 8% of the U.S. energy and 25% of the world energy. The ocean energy industry is projected to reach 1 GW by 2016 with sales of $650 million per year. Capital costs are expected to decrease. Technical challenges are discussed.
(IS-2009-89) Assessment of Demand Response & Advanced Metering
This report from the U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) surveys the installation of AMI (Advanced Metering Infrastructure) systems and demand response from 2006 to 2008. AMI installation increased from less than one percent to 4.1%. National Rural Cooperative utilities had the largest increase in penetration levels to 16.4% in 2008. Demand response programs accounted for 5.8% of the peak in 2008. FERC is examining regulations to encourage AMI and demand response. Among these are regulations related to time-of-use rates, customer access to meter data, measurements of load reduction, and financial investments required for demand response.
(IS-2009-88) Canada's Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Understanding the Trends, 1990-2006
This report from Environment Canada presents data on greenhouse gas emissions from 1990 to 2006.
(IS-2009-87) Jump-Starting Your EE Portfolio: Quick Start, Quick Return Energy Efficiency Programs
This report from the Edison Foundation describes a portfolio of programs for utilities to offer customers for achieving energy efficiency. Among these are appliance efficiency and recycling, demand response, lighting and consumer electronics improvements, plus commercial and industrial programs for lighting HVAC, and motors. The pros and cons of offering programs to suppliers versus customers are examined.
(IS-2009-86) Residential Electricity Conservation Through Smart Home Energy Management Technology: A Case-study in Milton, ON (Additional note)
This report is a refinement of a report of the same name based on analyzing consumer reactions to a home energy management system. The previous report was extended with an estimate for savings for a full year. The 90th percentile reduced consumption by about 20% and peak usage by about 23%, while the 10th percentile increased consumption by about 25% and peak consumption by about 24%. Overall, the result reported in the previous study should be modified from average consumption reduction of 19% to 16% and a peak consumption reduction from 24% to 18%.
(IS-2009-85) Residential Electricity Conservation Through Smart Home Energy Management Technology: A Case-study in Milton, ON
The University of Waterloo in Ontario examined how 123 consumers reacted to demand response events with the assistance of a home energy management system. Some consumers lowered consumption, while others did not. These households were compared to a control group without the energy management system. Of this who used the system, electricity consumption was reduced 4 to 14% overall, while peak consumption was reduced 5 to 23%.
(IS-2009-84) Analysis of the Waxman-Market Climate and Energy Bill
This report from the Alliance to Save Energy (ASE) is a commentary on the energy bill being considered in June 2009 by the United States House of Representatives. It includes a cap on greenhouse gases with a provision for polluters to trade the right to pollute within the limits of the cap. The ASE claims that cap and trade is “the most significant energy efficiency policy ever implemented in this country.” Other provisions in the bill strengthen building codes, mandate 20% of electricity by 2020 come from renewables, and establish building, home, and appliance rating systems. Funding for energy efficiency is estimated at $3 billion per year from 2012 to 2050.
(IS-2009-83) Top Ten Utility Solar Integration Ranking: Results of the 2008 Utility Solar Electricity Survey
This survey from the Solar Electric Power Association surveyed the electric utility industry in early 2009 to determine how utilities were integrating solar electric sources into their grids. Solar power includes photovoltaics and concentrating solar power to a point where the heat generates power. The leading utility for total solar megawatts is Pacific Gas & Electric, while the total solar watts per customer is San Francisco Public Utilities Commission for municipal buildings. The top municipal utility was the Sacramento Municipal Utility District.
(IS-2009-82) Utility of the Future
This report from a 2008 KEMA, Inc. forum examines the challenges facing electric utilities. The need for a smart grid was discussed especially to accommodate power from renewable sources. Reduction of greenhouse gases was another major topic. A commissioner from the U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (responsible for the wholesale electric market) estimated that a $1 trillion investment in electricity generation, transmission, and distribution was needed. Other topics included advanced metering, electric cars, and building automation.
(IS-2009-81) Renewable energy country attractiveness indices
This survey by Ernst & Young rates national performance in developing renewal energy sources. The rating is weighted 75% for wind, 10% for solar, and 15% for biomass and other technologies. The U.S. Germany, China, India, and Spain lead the index in all renewables. Canada ranks ninth. The effects of the economic slowdown are discussed. Country-by-country performance is presented.
(IS-2009-80) Increasing Water Efficiency in California's Commercial, Industrial, and Institutional (CII) Sector
This paper from the Natural Resources Defense Fund examines the long-term water supply in California. California is seeking to reduce per capita consumption 20% by 2020. The largest uses are office buildings, golf courses, and schools. The secondary benefits include lowered energy costs and the consequential effects on the environment, and improved fisheries. Policy changes to encourage water conservation are presented.
(IS-2009-79) International Energy Outlook 2009
This report from the Energy Information Agency of the U.S. Department of Energy projects the world energy market through 2030. Usage will grow 44% with 73% of the growth outside the developed countries. Consumption of all fuels will grow. However, production of biofuels will increase six-fold. The effects of the current downturn that have reduced energy consumption are expected to end after 2010. Renewable electricity will be fueled by wind and hydro, but not solar unless subsidized. Electricity from nuclear plants will increase about 40%. Carbon dioxide emissions are expected to increase 39%. The 2030 oil price is projected at $130 with a low of $50 and a high of $200 per barrel.
(IS-2009-78) Development of an Operation and Maintenance Rating System for Commercial Buildings
This report from the University of Washington presents a study for the National Center for Energy Management and Building Technologies of the U.S. Department of Energy. This study created a rating system to quantify the performance of outsourced building operations and maintenance services. The ratings cover building energy usage; operation, maintenance, and functionality of the heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems; building occupant satisfaction; and building operation and management. Detailed survey forms are included in the report.
(IS-2009-77) The Influence of Home Energy Management Systems on the Behaviours of Residential Electricity Consumers: An Ontario, Canada Case Study
This is a thesis written by a masters student at the University of Waterloo in Ontario. The effectiveness of a home energy management system to reduce average and peak electricity usage is reported. The home energy management system presented time-of-use rates via the web and allowed users to choose their level of conservation. Control was exercised via a home gateway and X-10 control of thermostat, light switches, etc. Overall, about 3% load reduction and 13% peak reduction was achieved with about 3% shift in load to off-peak.
(IS-2009-76) Market failures and policy or policies' success
This publication from the International Energy Agency (IEA) focuses on the energy used by consumer electronics, including appliances, computers, and communications devices. The IEA is an inter-governmental agency of 28 countries including Canada and the U.S. Total energy use by these devices is expected to double by 2022 and triple by 2030. The IEA recommends government policies that encourage energy conserving products. They specifically recommend products that power only those functions active in the device.
(IS-2009-75) The U.S. Smart Grid Revolution - KEMA's Perspective for Job Creation
This study from KEMA, Inc. projects the impact of $64 billion in expenditures on smart grid projects from 2008-2012. About 278,600 jobs are expected to be created during this period. This paper surveys the transition of the electric utility industry to accommodate a smart grid. The smart grid will include advanced metering infrastructure (AMI), renewables, and increased reliability.
(IS-2009-74) Mobile Advertising: Buy In or Lose Out
This paper from Oracle examines the growing market for ads inserted in web pages delivered to mobile telephones. 23% of users click on such ads. This market may reach $1 billion by 2012 in the U.S. Methods of inserting ads in text messages are discussed. Billing options with ad subsidies are considered.
(IS-2009-73) Transforming the Market
This report from the World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) examines energy used by buildings in Brazil, China, Europe, India, Japan, and the U.S. These countries account for two-thirds of energy consumption. Motivations to achieve energy reduction are needed beyond market forces. The report recommends incentives, integrated design, innovation, advanced technology, training, and an “energy aware culture.” They warn against complacency and false optimism. Case studies are included.
(IS-2009-72) Energy Efficiency in Buildings: A Global Economic Perspective
This study from the Peterson Institute for International Economics examines financial motivation for building manager to improve building efficiency. The goal is to achieve a 50% reduction in green house gas emissions by 2050. The researchers examined what would motivate the owners of residential and commercial building to make change to reduce emissions. A worldwide investment of $1 trillion per year is needed to achieve the goals. 83% of this investment will be paid back in 20 years through lower energy consumption. The authors conclude “Imposing a price for carbon alone will be insufficient to achieve the necessary emission reductions from buildings, and barriers to adoption must be addressed through building standards, fiscal spending, and new approaches for financing energy-saving design and technology at scale.”
(IS-2009-71) Bus-based Installation Technology in Residential and Commercial Buildings
The South Westphalia University of Applied Sciences in Germany conducted a market survey of opinions regarding building and home automation systems that use a communications bus. Most respondents favored this technology for increased comfort and convenience. Three-quarters of companies interviewed already incorporate this technology. Key applications are lighting, shading, and HVAC. The leading systems installed in Germany are KNX and LonWorks.
(IS-2009-70) Transforming Innovation into Market Growth: Digital Media
This report from Enterprise Florida surveys the impact of the conversions of media from analog to digital. A total of 4800 Florida companies are involved in game production, wireless and mobile data services, e-music, e-learning, and video production.
(IS-2009-69) Job Opportunities for the Green Economy
This study from the University of Massachusetts at Amherst examines the effect on employment of the expansions of industries that address global warming. The following areas were studied: building retrofitting, mass transit, energy-efficient automobiles, wind power, solar power, and cellulosic biomass fuels. Employment impacts in 12 U.S. states were studied. The conclusion is that workers with a wide range of skills can benefit from these growing industries.
(IS-2009-68) Evaluation Manual for Intelligent Building in Taiwan
This report from Taiwan explains the criteria used in Taiwan for labeling a building as “intelligent.” Various evaluation systems from Japan, China, and Europe are discussed. The following criteria are used: Information & Communication, Safety & Security, Health & Amenity, Energy Saving Equipment, Premises Distribution System (PDS), System Integration, and Facilities Management.
(IS-2009-67) The Economic Stimulus Plan and the Construction Industry
This report from the law firm of Akerman Senterfitt reviews the U.S. law passed in February 2009 that allocates $135 billion for building construction. Funds are available for transportation, federal buildings, energy projects, and water and environment projects. These funds are intended for “shovel ready” projects to stimulate employment. There are provisions in the law requiring states to make quick decisions about using the funds. Project announcements are found in fedbizopps.gov. This paper examines the Buy American provisions of the Act.
(IS-2009-66) Widgets drive mobile content consumption
This paper from Fiercewireless explores the use of widgets on mobile device to generate revenue. Widgets are icons that initiate light-weight applications such as a local weather forecast or information about a museum. The use of widgets tailored to the user can create brand loyalty to the phone maker and can draw users to advertisers.
(IS-2009-65) Energy Efficiency in Buildings: Transforming the Market
This paper from the World Business Council for Sustainable Development explores building efficiency in six markets: Brazil, China Europe, Indian, Japan, and the U.S. Energy consumption for building operation was studied. Building operations account for 80% of the total energy consumed during the life cycle of the building that include construction and demolition. Buildings consume 40% of energy produced. The report proposes methods to reduce energy consumption sufficient to decrease carbon output by 77% by 2050. Codes, incentives, designs, and technologies to achieve this goal are discussed. Financial incentives alone are inadequate today; taxes and subsidies are recommended. The net cost is estimated at $250 billion per year in the six market studied.
(IS-2009-64) Accelerating Unified Communications with an Enterprise-Wide Architecture
This article from the Yankee Group explores unified communications in a business. Unified communications combines voice, video, data, and mobile communications. Data communications now include instant messaging, called presence. Voice should be implemented with VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol). This integrated communication not only saves money, but also improves competitiveness. The writer recommends a corporate-wide system, rather than upgrades at each site to foster system integration. Incorporating the industry standards SIP for communications and XML for data description are proposed. Suggestions for selecting a supplier are presented.
(IS-2009-63) Meeting Aggressive New State Goals for Utility-Sector Energy Efficiency
This report from the American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy reviews the response of utilities to state mandates for improved efficiency. It examines which states achieved the greatest improvement and the relevant factors that contributed to this increase. Data from the top 14 states are presented. The top three states were California, Massachusetts, and Connecticut. Important factors were funding for energy efficiency programs and strong requirements for complying. No states have achieved the expressed goal of 1.5-2% increase in efficiency per year. The programs implemented by the successful utilities are reviewed.
(IS-2009-62) Micro-CHP Accelerator
This paper from the Carbon Trust analyzes the benefits of small combined heat and power (CHP) systems in both commercial and residential buildings. Some the results found: best saving are with long consistent heating periods; can save 15-20% of carbon emissions in commercial applications; there is a need for skilled operators; can save 5-10% of carbon footprint for older large houses and insignificant savings in newer small houses. The report recommends a policy that considers the installation environment. Devices with increased power generation efficiency should be considered.
(IS-2009-61) Economics of Emerging Electric Energy Storage Technologies and Demand Response in Deregulated Electricity Markets
This 2008 Ph.D. thesis from Carnegie Mellon University explores energy storage techniques and demand response for large users. Two storage methods were explored: battery and flywheel. The flywheel is 90% efficient with a much longer life than a battery and could be justified economically. The demand-response program provided a subsidy for load reduction when costs were high.
(IS-2009-60) Manufacturers in the Residential Systems Market Identify Market Opportunities and Constraints
This survey from Stiernberg Consulting examines the challenges to expanding markets for consumer products. Manufacturers of audio, control, automation, AV networking, video, media storage and management, wire/cable, lighting, furniture, racks, and accessories were questioned near the end of 2008. The top challenges were pricing pressures and shrinking margins, long product development cycles, limited talent, and new competition. Competition includes the entry of big-box retailers into the installation market. On a positive note, the economy problems are keeping people home and demanding more entertainment.
(IS-2009-59) Strategic Facility Planning: A White Paper
This article by the International Facility Management Association provides recommendation for strategic planning techniques for facilities management. The general method involves understanding, analyzing, planning, and acting. Costing issues are discussed. A strategic plan should consider life-cycle costs for buildings.
(IS-2009-58) Carbon Footprinting
This paper from the Carbon Trust provides a guide to estimating the carbon footprint or an organization. The carbon footprint is defined as “The total set of greenhouse gas emissions caused directly and indirectly by an individual, event or product.” An organization is responsible for carbon emissions via the company buildings, the consumption of electricity, and the transportation required for goods and people. A method for calculating the carbon footprint is presented.
(IS-2009-57) Building Fabric - Energy Saving Techniques to Improve the Efficiency of Building Structures
This paper from the Carbon Trust provides practical advice for reducing heat losses by rehabilitating the ceiling, walls, windows, floors, and doors of a building (called the “building fabric”). About a 10-15% of energy is wasted through heat losses via the building fabric. Techniques for improving the building fabric are presented.
(IS-2009-56) Meeting Electric Peak on the Demand Side: Wholesale and Retail Market Impacts of Real-Time Pricing and Peak Load Management Policy
This 2008 Ph.D. thesis from Carnegie Mellon University explores the justification, costs, impact, and customer acceptance of technique for demand management of electricity. Studies of customer responses to time-varying pricing are reviewed. An economic analysis of the cost of providing peak supply versus customer willing to pay for a reliable electricity supply is presented. The cost of an advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) to support time-varying pricing versus the cost of peaking generators is explained. About 10-15% reductions in peak can be achieved with modest programs, although some customers will see increased bills. Also, installing AMI is not cost-effective for small customers.
(IS-2009-55) Combined Heat and Power for Buildings
This paper from the Carbon Trust explains how to use a single plant in a building both to generate electricity and to provide building heat from the excess heat of the generator. This scheme utilizes 90% of the energy supplied to the generator. Such units need to be operated about 5000 hours per year to be economical. Various sizes of combination power and heat units are discussed. An example installation at a university saved about 14% in energy costs with an up-front cost of about $800,000. These units may be installed for standby power generation.
(IS-2009-54) Making the Business Case for a Carbon Reduction Project
This paper from the Carbon Trust provides practical advice for convincing corporate decision-makers to support company projects that reduce carbon. For example, start with a small project or a trial, generate success, and build on this success. Financing and risks should be presented to management.
(IS-2009-53) Low Carbon Refurbishment of Buildings
This paper from the Carbon Trust provides practical advice for reducing the carbon footprint of commercial buildings. It specifically provides guidance for the rehabilitation of existing buildings to mitigate carbon in the U.K. Rehabilitating without considering carbon may result in increased emissions. Issues such as the building envelope, lighting, heating and cooling, and office and food equipment are discussed.
(IS-2009-52) Air Conditioning: Maximising Comfort, Minimising Energy Consumption
This paper from the Carbon Trust provides practical advice for reducing the cost of air conditioning commercial buildings. It also presents methods in building design to minimize the need for air conditioning. Air conditioning technology is summarized. A checklist for building managers is included.
(IS-2009-51) Global Carbon Mechanisms
This paper from the Carbon Trust explores methods used to reduce carbon emissions. As carbon trading credits grow, new mechanisms to encourage practices that reduce emissions are needed. The appropriate pricing of carbon emissions to continue the scheme and to benefit developing countries are discussed. Detailed economic analysis in presented.
(IS-2009-50) Achieving 30% and 50% over ASHRAE 90.1-2004 in a Low-Rise Office Building
This study by ConSol attempted to reduce energy consumption is a low-rise four story 95,000 square -foot building by 30-50% below the ASHRA 2004 level. They were able to achieve only a 15-23% reduction with about a 10-year payback period. The study was done using energy simulation software from the U.S. Department of Energy. The simulation was conducted for the climates in thee cities: Newport Beach, California, Baltimore, and Chicago. Energy efficiency was achieved with improvements in insulation, glazing, lighting, HVAC, and the use of photovoltaics. Greater improvements would require “a design approach that analyzes buildings as holistic systems rather than as disconnected collections of individually engineered subsystems.”
(IS-2009-49) Clean Energy Trends 2009
Clean Edge, Inc. tracks the implementation of the market for clean technologies for energy annually. This study for 2009 projects almost a tripling of markets for biofuels, solar, and wind in10 years. However, retrenchment is expected in 2009 because of the economic recession. Governments are now investing more in this sector. The following five trends were identified: smart grid, storage technology, development of clean energy markets, grid infrastructure improvements, and micropower grids.
(IS-2009-48) Geared for Change - Energy Efficiency in Canada's Commercial Building Sector
This paper is joint development of The National Round Table on the Environment and the Economy (NRTEE) and Sustainable Development Technology Canada (SDTC) about reducing the carbon footprint of commercial buildings. The NTREE seeks to reduce carbon emission by 58% less than the projected output in 2050 if there were no change. The focus is on clustered buildings that are highly efficient. Achieving this goal requires industry commitment and “stringent regulations.” Buildings should be considered in the context of the city and transportation. Policies will be needed on energy pricing, command and control regulations, subsidies, and information programs. Policies in other countries are reviewed.
(IS-2009-47) Smart Grid: A Practical View
This paper describes some of the features of an electric smart grid. A smart grid overlays information technology on the elements of the electric grid. Losses of electricity (conversion to wasted heat) may occur due to faults to ground and resistive transmission pathways. The grid needs to be monitored for these faults with a distributed communications network, similar to a cellular telephone network. An Internet Protocol-based network is recommended.
(IS-2009-46) Sony Online Entertainment Realizes an Estimated 50% IRR on Its Service Strategy
This article summarizes the methods used by Sony to provide customer support for game products. Sony purchase specialized software to provide details about customer problems during game play. The integration of customer support into the game business at Sony is described with a summary of takeaways to benefit other companies. Sony was able to achieve a 50% return on the investment in this new system for customer service.
(IS-2009-45) Lighting the way: Understanding the smart energy consumer
This paper from IBM is a survey of 5000 consumers about their attitudes toward energy management. Cost is a key motivating factor for consumers to manage energy and to change patterns of usage. 65-75% of consumer said that environmental factors are important. Various demographic groups were analyzed. Consumers question the potential savings with a smart meter, unless the savings are guaranteed.
(IS-2009-44) How to Design a Solar-Powered Computing Device
This paper from Intel describes applications of solar power supplies built into computing devices. Examples include routers in remote locations, sensors, data acquisition, and femtocells (for extending cell phone networks). Power management is important in the design of such devices to minimize the solar collector size and power storage required.
(IS-2009-43) Strategies for Smart Services
This paper from Harbor Research discussed companies shifting from selling products to selling services. Services are facilitated by embedded intelligence in products. Examples from manufacturers are presented. The effect of this shift is explained: “When products become networked, the predominant value shifts from the product itself to the experience of owning and using the product inside an ‘aware,’ responsive support environment.” The business value of interconnecting products is discussed.
(IS-2009-42) Designing the Future of Information
This paper from Harbor Research explores two approaches to applying the Internet for interconnecting devices. Work from Maya Design, called Internet Commons, and from the MIT Center for Bits and Atoms, called Internet 0, are presented. Both are important for what Harbor Research calls “The Pervasive Internet.” The Internet Commons facilitates data fusion using a markup language called RDF (Resource Description Framework) as part of a new Information Device Architecture (IDA). Internet 0 is a version of the Internet suite of protocols intended for embedding in low cost devices.
(IS-2009-41) Securing the Future
This paper from Harbor Research presents the challenges of providing network security when the Internet interconnects devices. They maintain that the client-server model of the Internet needs to be changed for machine-to-machine communications. Between 500 million and one billion devices are expected to be interconnected by 2010. A framework for data security needed for machine-to-machine communications is presented.
(IS-2009-40) Tracking the Sun: The Installed Cost of Photovoltaics in the U.S. from 1998-2007
This report from Lawrence Berkeley National Labs examines cost trends for photovoltaics used to supply power. The average cost has dropped from $10.50 in 1998 to $7.60 in 2007 (in 2007 dollars). Costs are about 1/3 less for systems above 750 kW and for new installations compared to retrofits. A total of 10,600 MW of photovoltaic power has been installed worldwide. The leaders in installations are Germany, Spain, Japan, and then the U.S. The methodology for collecting data about installations is presented along with the findings. The motivations for installations are driven by government incentives. U.S. investment tax credits are expected to spur the installation of residential photovoltaics.
(IS-2009-39) The Role of Security in Trustworthy Cloud Computing
This paper by RSA introduces the security challenges for cloud computing. Cloud computing is the replacement of in-house corporate IT with services rented from a third party using server accessed via the public Internet. The need for increased data security before enterprises move to cloud computing is discussed. Enterprises are tempted by lower IT cost, but need to consider the liability for breaches to achieve security mandated by various regulations.
(IS-2009-38) Highlights of the 2009 International Solid State Circuits Conference (ISSCC)
This is a summary from Digdia of developments in solid state electronics presented at a conference. Among the highlights are LEDs for LCD TV illumination, mobile phone electronics for Internet and TV access, cameras, power reduction dynamically to unused circuits, and chips that can access a variety of radio networks.
(IS-2009-37) Wind Resource Site Assessment: A Guide to Selecting Monitoring Equipment
This brochure from Onset Computer Corporation explains how to assess the local environment at a wind generator. Appropriate sensors for temperature, wind speed, and wind direction plus data loggers are described. Accessing the data collected by the data logger using a communications network is discussed.
(IS-2009-36) Monitoring Physical Threats in the Data Center
This paper from APC Schneider Electric examines security threats to data centers. These threats include excess temperatures, water leaks, intrusions, harmful air quality, smoke, and fire. The placement of sensors, aggregation of sensor data, and reporting problems are discussed.
(IS-2009-35) Sales 2.0: How Businesses are Using Online Collaboration to Spark Sales
This investigation by TheTechCollective assesses the impact of Web2.0 interactions on the Internet to enhance the selling process, called Sales 2.0. Web 2.0 enables sharing and collaboration. A new technique of combining applications called mash-ups is discussed. When applied to sales it fosters collaboration within companies and with customers. A survey of companies using these new tools is presented. About 25% are using social networking tools such as LinkedIn, Facebook, Myspace, Twitter, and Jigsaw to enhance the sales process.
(IS-2009-34) Inquiry Insights: Client Virtualization, Q3 2008
This paper from Forrester Research explores the value of providing a virtual desktop for working outside the office. These people may be using a portable computer when traveling or working from home. Vendors of desktop virtualization software are reviewed. Application virtualization allows applications to run on a foreign machine without interference from other software on that machine.
(IS-2009-33) Shaping the ICT research and innovation agenda for the next decade
This paper from the European Commission explores the role of the European Union in fostering developments in the ICT (Information and Communications Technology) industry in Europe. Important applications of ICT include energy efficiency, environmental sustainability, and health and social care systems. Proposals for tax incentives and public financing of R&D are discussed. 565 persons were surveyed for this report. The top services were web-based and the top consumer markets were access to information, social networking, and on-line administration. There was strong support for the public sector to adopt innovative ICT solutions.
(IS-2009-32) Assessing the Electric Productivity Gap and the U.S. Efficiency Opportunity
This paper from the Rocky Mountain Institute explores how U.S. states use power generation efficiency as a resource. The U.S. could save 1.2 gigawatt-hours annually (30% of usage) if all states were as efficient as New York. Electric productivity was defined as $GDP/kWh normalized for various factors such as mild climates, economy, rates, culture, etc. The top ten states were New York, Alaska, Connecticut, Delaware, California, New Jersey, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, and Colorado. The methodology for this study is explained.
(IS-2009-31) Cleantech Growth & Go-to-Market Report
This report from Sustainability Development Technology Canada (a foundation with government support) describes best practices and business opportunities for a clean technology industry in Ontario. This organization gives grants for “projects that address climate change, air quality, clean water, and clean soil” and “demonstration-scale facilities for the production of next generation renewable fuels.” Opportunities for Ontario companies to develop clean technologies and to market them beyond Ontario are discussed. In 2008, 2600 companies generated $7 billion and employed 65,000 people in clean technology.
(IS-2009-30) A Greenhouse Gas Cap-and-Trade System for Ontario
This paper from the Government on Ontario explores plans for mitigating green house gas emissions. Discussed are a Cap-and-Trade program and harmonization with programs in Quebec and North America. The dangerous gases include carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, hydrofluorocarbons, petrofluorocarbons, and sulphur hexafluoride. Ontario and Quebec expected to start a Cap-and-Trade program as soon as 2010. The mechanism for this program is presented with the goal of an absolute reduction in greenhouse gases. The program is expected to be expanded to more Canadian provinces and U.S. states.
(IS-2009-29) Internet of the future: Europe must be a key player
This presentation by a European Union commissioner explores the role of the European Union (EU) in enhancing the Internet. Topics discussed include privacy, security, and governance. The drivers of the Internet are social networks, the Internet of Things (including cloud computing), and the mobile Internet. Social networks are expected to impact business. The Internet can help engage citizens in politics. The EU will focus on the openness of the Internet through “Net Neutrality” and standards, globalization, and economic investments in the Internet.
(IS-2009-28) Tomorrow’s Markets
This survey by the owner of the Economist magazine and the U.K. government explores business opportunities in the emerging markets of Brazil, China, Indian, and Russia. 561 executives from 19 countries were questioned. Growth in the emerging markets is expected to offset declines in Europe and North America. The highest growth expectations are in China and India. The next set of emerging nations includes Vietnam, Mexico, the United Arab Emirates, and the Ukraine. Obstacles in emerging markets are legal and regulatory institutions, corruption, and poor infrastructures.
(IS-2009-27) Optimizing Users And Applications In A Mobile World
This report from Forrester Consulting is a survey of about 300 companies worldwide on how IT is adjusting to serve mobile workers away from the office. 63% of those surveyed use mobile connections with 55% via Wi-Fi hotspots. 45% now work from home full time for the companies surveyed. The greatest complaint received by IT help desks is application performance, rather than computer hardware and operating system issues. The VPN (Virtual Private Network) is the prevalent technology for accessing the company servers. Suggestions for improving wide area network communications are provided.
(IS-2009-26) Ubiquitous Broadband: The Future of Global Connectivity
This paper from the Yankee Group describes the size and penetration of the broadband market for Internet access and provides growth projections. The current market is $590 billion annually with the greatest penetration in Japan (89%), Sweden (86%), the Netherlands (81%), and Italy (79%). The market is expected to reach $903 billion by 2012 with ubiquitous access in Asia, Europe, and the U.S. Broadband is defined as Internet access at least 500 kbps or wireless connections via 3G or better. North America lags Europe because of lower 3G wireless availability. The leading countries in 2012 will be Sweden, Italy, the Netherlands, and the U.S.
(IS-2009-25) Ticket to success: escalators in entertainment venues
This paper by Schindler Elevator Corporation explains the parameters for designing escalators for public entertainment structures. The peak volume of people to be moved before and after the event is a key parameter. Also important in the design is accommodating a location exposed to the weather. Technical considerations include escalator placement for multiple floors, motor size (based on anticipated crowd size), color of escalator materials, and noise.
(IS-2009-24) UPnP Technology - The Simple, Seamless Home Network
This brochure from the UPnP Implementers Corporation is a promotional piece for UPnP. It provides an overview of the UPnP Forum and the UPnP Implementers Corporation, and announces that UPnP has been approved as an ISO/IEC standard. A very brief overview of the UPnP networking and control method is included.
(IS-2009-23) Automated Demand Response Cuts Commercial Building Energy Use and Peak Demand
This summary from Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory describes AutoDR. AutoDR is a demand response system for buildings that delivers data about a supply event requiring energy reduction. Energy management systems in building query a utility server for event notices. They then manage local energy consuming equipment, such as air-conditioning equipment and lighting in response. The objective is to shed load so the utility can tailor the demand to the available supply of electricity.
(IS-2009-22) CES 2009 – Top 10 Trends
Digdia presents a summary of key innovation at the 2009 Consumer Electronics Show (CES) held January 2009 in Las Vegas. Among the products noted are LCD TVs that are back lit with LEDs for improved contrast, 3D TVs, and TVs with on-screen short cuts (widgets) to Internet-based information. Many products promoted “green features.” Computer projectors small enough for embedding in a phone are coming. Flash memory is replacing tape and disks for camcorders. Digital photo frames are becoming a very competitive market. Netbooks, sized between a laptop and a PDA, are seeking market share. Mobile TV is growing.
(IS-2009-21) A Recent Whitestone Study of Energy-Saving Retrofits has Lessons for Other Green Projects
This overview of a report from Whitestone Research examines how to achieve U.S. federally mandated energy savings in older buildings. A key issue is initial investments versus life-cycle costs. A detailed analysis showed that a high initial investment saved money over 40 years. It included such features as a roof garden, triple-glazed windows, and a heat recovery chiller. Not all investments have the same or even positive returns. More research is needed.
(IS-2009-20) A U.S. Innovation Strategy for Climate Change Mitigation
This report from the Brookings Institution proposes fiscal and government investment policies for reducing greenhouse gasses (GHGs). Recommendations include establishing a price for GHGs, research and development tax credits, and public support for university and private sector research. An expenditure of $8 billion per year through 2016 for this research is proposed. The U.S. government currently funds 59% of the basis research in universities, non-profits, and government labs. The cost to stabilize GHG emissions is 0.2 to 5 % of global GDP, depending on the targeted GHG level. The U.S will bear about 25% of this cost.
(IS-2009-19) ZigBee Resource Guide
This guide from the ZigBee Alliance is a promotional magazine for ZigBee. It includes ads from ZigBee suppliers and summaries of market potential for ZigBee products. Applications of ZigBee for energy conservation and energy management are described.
(IS-2009-18) ICT & Ageing – European Study on Users, Markets and Technologies
This report from the European Commission discusses telehealth and telecare in Europe. The implementation of telehealth and telecare for an aging population at home is just starting. The potential benefits are not yet recognized by policy service providers and practitioners. More data and education are needed. Large-scale trials are recommended. Issues of privacy and surveillance needed to be addressed. Also, the quality of care, outcomes, and economics must be considered. Telehealth and telecare are based on ICT (Information and Communications Technologies). ICT can impact mobility, social care, health care, and housing. Current technology focuses on a portable alarm device to call for help. Telehealth could benefit 25-60% of older ill people. Services among the European Union countries are reviewed with information about Japan and the U.S. included.
(IS-2009-17) Users' Guide to Green Performance Contracting
This is working draft report from the non-profit Leonardo Academy investigating how to factor sustainability into performance contracts for upgrading a building. These contracts are intended for upgrading public buildings without expending capital improvement budgets. Long-term energy savings can justify incremental increases in first costs for improvements. Business methods for selecting a contractor are presented.
(IS-2009-16) The Economics of LEED for Existing Buildings for Individual Buildings 2008 Edition
This 2008 annual white paper from the non-profit Leonardo Academy examines the cost of implementing LEED in an existing building and the cost of operating the building. LEED is the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design Green Building Rating System. Data are based on 13 respondents. Total costs were about $1.50 to $2.00 per square foot for LEED certification. For most buildings surveyed the operating costs were lower than the average, per statistics of BOMA (Building Owners and Managers Association).
(IS-2009-15) How to Assess the Carbon Footprint of Goods and Services
This is a summary of a publicly available specification from the British Standards Institution (BSI) for determining the carbon footprint in a supply chain. The carbon footprint is a measure of greenhouse gas emissions. The specification, PAS 2050, provides guidance to companies and tools for calculating emission and “prioritising opportunities to reduce emissions.” A process for selecting a product to evaluate and performing the carbon footprint evaluation is presented. This may include consideration of raw materials, manufacturing, distribution, sales, customer user, and disposal. Methods for calculating and reducing the carbon footprint are presented for a hotel and a food producer.
(IS-2009-14) Specification for the Assessment of the Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Goods and Services
This report from the British Standards Institution summarizes PAS 2050 (Publicly Available Specification). PAS 2050 defines a method for assessing the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emission of goods and services. Measurement techniques for GHGs are presented. GHG offsets are not to be included. A consistent method for considering the life cycle of products from raw materials to disposal in considered. Procedures for claiming conformance with this PAS are described.
(IS-2009-13) CB Richard Ellis Conference Report
This report from the non-profit Leonardo Academy describes the Cleaner and Green® program for evaluating greenhouse gas (GHG) emission. Offsets to the GHG emissions from holding the 2007 CB Richard Ellis Conference in Toronto are described. The largest source of GHGs was travel, which was partially offset by renewable energy certificates purchased from Community Energy. Renewable Energy Credits fund renewable energy projects that reduce fossil fuel emissions.
(IS-2009-12) The 2007 Leonardo Academy Sustainability Survey Report
This 2007 report from the non-profit Leonardo Academy surveyed 408 commercial, non-profit, and governmental organizations in North America and Asia about sustainability. Sustainability is important for 90% of the respondents; 45% were developing a sustainability plan. Most do not track their emissions, but plan to and almost half are offsetting greenhouse gases. Only 10% own LEED-certified buildings, but more than half plan to retrofit to LEED standards within a decade. More than 60% are using sustainability standards in procurement.
(IS-2009-11) Bright Green Buildings: Convergence of Green and Intelligent Buildings
The Continental Automated Buildings Association has released of a comprehensive report on “bright” green buildings. “Bright” green buildings leverage intelligent technologies to support environmental sustainability while providing a significant return on investment (ROI). The report features several real-world examples that show how property companies around the world have employed advances in green building and networking technologies to increase profits, lower costs, and help the environment.
(IS-2009-10) State of the Connected Home Market Study
In one of the more striking examples of cross-industry collaboration, 10 top companies – Whirlpool Corporation, Bell Canada, Cisco Systems, Direct Energy, Hewlett-Packard Company, Leviton, Microsoft, Procter & Gamble, Legrand and Zensys/Z-Wave teamed up to conduct one of the most in-depth studies ever launched into the state of the connected home. Consumers were most interested in an easy, seamless way to integrate all their smart home devices from mobile to TV to appliance. This research is a follow up to the previous State of the Connected Home studies that were completed in 2003 and 2005 by CABA's Connected Home Research Council.
(IS-2009-09) Green Building Impact Report 2008
This report from Greener World Media assess the impact of U.S. Green Building Council LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) Green Building Rating System. The impact on land, water, energy, material, and indoor environment is considered. LEED is impacting about 5% of the new construction building market with another 30% starting the registration process for LEED certification. LEED buildings consume about 25% less energy than non-LEED buildings. However, the expansion of building floor area is leading to a net increase in energy consumption. LEED is hoping for a zero increase by 2015 or 2020.
(IS-2009-08) Ontario's Chief Energy Conservation Officer Annual Report 2008
This report from the government of Ontario outlines a strategy for encouraging energy conservation. Topics include energy conservation in government buildings and encouragement for conservation in private buildings and multi-family residential buildings. Electricity billing to individual tenants is recommended. The goal is to reduce the electricity peak in Ontario by 6300 MW by the end of 2025. Opportunities for leadership in energy conservation by the government are discussed. Conservation projects throughout the province are presented.
(IS-2009-07) Building Information Modeling
This report from McGraw Hill Construction is a market survey of the acceptance and use of Building Information Modeling (BIM). The survey was conducted among 23 construction industry organizations including the U.S. Army Core of Engineers. BIM is being adopted from the bottom-up in the construction industry. 62% said they will be using BIM in 30% of projects in 2009. The benefits of BIM include coordination of software and project personnel and improved productivity, communication, and quality control. More training, management acceptance, and lower costs are needed. BIM is defined as “The process of creating and using digital models for design, construction and/or operations of projects.” BIM can impact green buildings. Numerous case studies are included.
(IS-2009-06) Game Consoles and the Emerging Over-the-Top Video Opportunity
This report from The Diffusion Group examines developments enabling delivery of services that compete with Pay TV. Some require dedicated set-top box equipment. Some may be built into televisions. Some may be combined other equipment such as TiVo or the Xbox360 gaming console. Another possible solution links the PC with the TV via an adapter. This report examines how incumbent Pay TV providers can compete with video delivery via broadband Internet.
(IS-2009-05) e-Government and e-Participation
This report from the European Union examines the impact of information and communications technology on the operation of government and the delivery of services. The goals are to improve government effectiveness, efficiency, transparency, and democracy. E-Government is hoped to bring government services to the isolated, the poor, long-term unemployed, the elderly, and people with disabilities. Examples across Europe are presented.
(IS-2009-04) Improving America's Hospitals
This report from the Joint Commission, a not-for-profit organization that accredits hospitals, assesses the improvements in patient care from 2002 to 2008. It shows improved care for heart attack, heart failure, and pneumonia patients. Compliance by hospitals with Joint Commission quality guidelines is reviewed. The report notes significant variations in hospital quality. Details and methodology are presented.
(IS-2009-03) Big Trouble with No Trouble Found: How Consumer Electronics Firms Confront the High Cost of Customer Returns
This report from Accenture analyzes the growing phenomenon of consumers returning technology products that they think are broken but actually work (about 2/3 of returned consumer electronics). Returns cost manufacturers 5-6% of sales and cost retailers 2-3% of sales. The cost breakdown of returns is 29% for warranty repairs and 20% for processing products with no problems. The remaining major cost is 33% for scrapping the product. This report discusses improved customer education and more efficient processing of “No Trouble Found” products. Consumers will devote an average to 20 minutes to getting a product to work. A “set-up concierge” is proposed to help customers with installation problems. Also, built-in remote diagnostics and customer-assistance are recommended.
(IS-2009-02) Low Carbon, High Growth: Latin American Responses to Climate Change
This report from World Bank examines how Latin America can reduce carbon output even during an economic slump with falling oil prices. Climate change is already affecting temperatures, rainfall, and sea levels of Latin America. The net effects have been negative. The impacts on the various countries are presented. Policies for growth with low carbon output are discussed.
(IS-2009-01) 10 Best Practices for Online Merchandising
This brochure describes how to create an effective web site for retail merchandising. Two techniques are described: user navigation and user search. About half of shoppers prefer to navigate through a site, while half prefer to search for a particular product. A search technique needs to help customers who do not provide enough specificity so they can locate the desired product. If a search fails, alternate products should be offered. Merchandizing zone techniques on a Web site are discussed for moving selected products, product lines, products with high inventory, or products with high margins.