Public Research Library:
IS-2005-47: Intelligent Thermostats Save Energy and Give Improved Control Performance
2005 CABA Information Series Reports
This paper, Bertil Thomas and Mohsen Soleimani-Mohseni, reports on the study and laboratory testing of smart thermostats in controlling HVAC systems. The report concludes that smart thermostats result in energy savings and energy efficiency.
IS-2005-46: Feed-forward in Temperature Control of Buildings
The feed-forward control system is described as providing efficiency advantage over the general feedback control system, as it compensates more quickly to disturbances in small buildings. This report, by Bertil Thomas, Mohsen Soleimani-Mohseni, Per Fahle, provides a description of the lab test and its findings.
IS-2005-45: Leed is Broken ... Let's Fix It
This paper, by Auden Schendler and Randy Udall, reviews the original objectives of the LEED certification program, reports on its performance and concludes that improvement is required. One of the concerns focuses on the cost of certification or that going green is not expensive. The paper does suggest that the remarks are the ones of the authors and that a second opinion is recommended. Nevertheless, the report provides an insight on the value of certifying buildings.
IS-2005-44: Neural Network Models for Predictive Climate Control in Intelligent Buildings
This paper, by Mohsen Soleimani-Mohseni and Bertil Thomas, deals with the problem of identifying black-box prediction models for indoor climate control in intelligent buildings.
IS-2005-43: A Study of Demand-Controlled Ventilation and Constant Air Volume Systems
This paper, by Mohsen Soleimani-Mohseni and Bertil Thomas, deals with the study of the demand-controlled ventilation systems and the need for a constant volume of replacement air when purging in-building pollutants. The study shows that demand-controlled ventilation, using a feedback system, requires less integrated outdoor air flow in order to maintain an accepted air quality.
IS-2005-42: Neural Networks for Self-Tuning of PI- and PID-Controllers
This paper, by Mohsen Soleimani-Mohseni and Bertil Thomas, demonstrates how neural networks can be used to estimate parameters of PID-controllers for different classes of dynamic processes.
IS-2005-41: Insteon, The Details
The Insteon report, although product focused, suggests that the automation of homes will become a major industry in the years to come. From a technical viewpoint, the paper describes the networking, signaling requirements, radio frequency and Powerline carrier applications used in automated systems. The paper, originally published by Smarthome Technologies, enforces the need for simplicity of implementation and use. In addition, the paper suggests a future vision in automating the homes for entertainment, utilities and environment controls.
IS-2005-40: Modelling and Intelligent Climate Control of Buildings
The main purpose of this paper, a reprint of Mohsen Soleimani-Mohseni's doctoral thesis, is to examine the possibilities of different indoor climate control techniques, feed-forward control and demand-controlled ventilation, together with intelligent technology to improve the indoor climate and/or the energy efficiency of buildings. A large portion of the paper focuses on developing mathematical models for the prediction of the indoor operative temperature using linear models as well as non-linear artificial neural network (ANN) model. The different controllers used in indoor climate control are also investigated in this paper.
IS-2005-39: Green Value Report
The Green Value, Green Building, white paper draws the attention to the marketplace that intelligent (green) buildings are healthier places to work and live, in addition to using fewer non-renewable resources, produces less waste and air emissions and, cause less disturbance to site ecology.
IS-2005-38: Intelligent Building Index Version 2.0
The Intelligent Building Index Version 2.0 (IBI2.0), authored by Dr. Wong, Dr. So and Prof. Leung, provides a model for the rating of intelligent buildings. It summarizes the mathematical evaluation criteria and focuses on rating 10 elements, which are themselves sub-divided in numerous features and facilities with their individual rating weight. This paper is a detailed reference of a rating scheme and is a good reference to better understand the rating practices of an intelligent building.
IS-2005-37: Wireless Networks in Building Automation Systems
The Wireless Network in Building Automation Systems white paper by Siemens Building Technologies addresses the potential interference with IEEE 8012.15.4 devices in the presence of IEEE 802.11b. Since most of the wireless networks occupy the unlicensed 2.4GHz band, interference between them can occur while in close proximity. Avoidance procedures and testing methods are discussed.
IS-2005-36: Building–IT Convergence – What Next?
This paper, published by Clasma Events Inc., covers the driving forces, trends, predictions on how our lives will change as the convergence of technology takes place in buildings globally. The paper highlights four aspect of technology with potential impact: i) the affects of introducing internet as a technology enabler, ii) the changes that convergence will bring to the stakeholders of the industry, iii) the changes to the marketing of building and, iv) the interaction of these forces and the possible consequences.
IS-2005-35: Global Optimizing Systems (GOS)
The Global Optimizing Systems (GOS) paper, by Shariar Makarechi of the Georgia Institute of Technology, focuses on the implementation of automation systems in buildings to derive financial benefits in related maintenance. The research paper supports the feasibility of real time monitoring of global automation systems and suggests that with the Web-based solutions at our disposal, cost saving technology, which has been evolving for the last 20 years, can now be easily implemented.
IS-2005-34: The Intelligent Home Index
The Intelligent Home Index paper, Version 1.0, originally published by the Asian Institute of Intelligent Buildings, focuses on the rating of an intelligent home and provides for the division of the elements into three levels: the building provisions, the building management and the user level. Each of these categories is then sub-divided in a multitude of supporting features and facilities with a rating weight relative to their importance.
IS-2005-33: On the Quantitative Assessment of Intelligent Buildings
This paper, by Albert T.P. So, and K.C. Wong, recommends a new approach to define intelligent buildings. It calls for a two-level strategy to define intelligent buildings. There are nine Quality Environment Modules (QEMs) and underneath each one, there are a number of elements. In addition, there are features or facilities to consider and these can be classified as functional requirements, functional space, and technology. Although the paper focuses on Asian definition, it suggests that the approach can be applied around the world.
IS-2005-32: A New Definition of Intelligent Buildings for Asia
This paper, by Albert T.P. So, Alvin C.W. Wong and K.C. Wong, attempts to create a definition of intelligent buildings for Asia. It provides a detailed explanation of the process required to define a building as intelligent as specified by the Asian Institute of Intelligent Buildings.
IS-2005-31: Life-Cycle Costing: Fundamental Estimating Issues
This document provides an overview of the process of determining life-cycle cost. It outlines techniques that simplify economic assessment of design alternatives including estimating procedures for project costs such as energy, maintenance, repair, and replacement. The report also provides a brief analysis of evaluating economic performance of investments. The following report was provided, under the IIBC Life-Cycle Cost (LCC) initiative, by Reed Construction Data/RSMeans as Phase I of the project.
IS-2005-30: CABA Consultant Report on Life Cycle Costs
This document summarizes the finding of a study to assess the incidence of highly integrated buildings in the U.S. and to determine typical life-cycle cost considerations when constructing fully integrated buildings. The report also provides the result of an extensive research of both new and existing projects to determine the level of integration in buildings. The following report was provided, under the IIBC Life-Cycle Cost (LCC) initiative, by Reed Construction Data/RSMeans as Phase I of the project.
IS-2005-29: Why are our Buildings so Dumb?
In this white paper, Tom Lohner, P.E. of Teng Solutions argues: "Its time to get our industry to step up to the plate and quit wining about how we are losing our edge to our foreign neighbors. This is not rocket science but the application of common sense and good design and construction practices - albeit - different than our current standard practices. We have found the need for a Chief Technology Officer (CTO) in our internal businesses; it is time to secure the services of a professional that can serve in this capacity for our buildings."
IS-2005-28: The Building Commissioning Guide
The Building Commissioning Guide, published by the U.S. General Services Administration, provides the overall framework and process for building commissioning from project planning through tenant occupancy, keys to success within each step and the ways that each team member supports the process of commissioning. The primary audience for this Building Commissioning Guide is GSA's project managers, their construction management agents, and the commissioning agent. The secondary audience for this Guide includes the many stakeholders in the commissioning process including customer agencies, the balance of the project team, other members of government, as well as GSA's partners.
IS-2005-27: Benefits of Element Management Systems in FTTP Networks
This paper, published by Alloptic, explores the management challenges and opportunities associated with fiber-to-the-premise (FTTP) networks and the strategic role of related Element Management Systems.
IS-2005-26: Advanced Controls & Sensors Workshop Report
On June 11, 2003, representatives from universities, federal, and state government agencies, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratories, and the private sector attended a one-day workshop in Washington, DC. The objective of the workshop was to obtain review and input of DOE's assessment of the market for advanced controls technology and potential R&D pathways to enhance the success of advanced controls in the buildings market place. This paper , originally published by the U.S. Dept. of Energy & Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), provides a synopsis of the proceedings.
IS-2005-25: Advanced Controls & Sensors Workshop Report
This document, originally published by the U.S. Dept. of Energy & Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), provides a market assessment of existing building sensors and controls and presents a range of technology pathways (R&D options) for pursuing advanced sensors and building control strategies. This report is a synthesis of five white papers, each devoted to either the market assessment or the identification of R&D options to expand the market, and resultant energy savings, from advanced building controls and sensors.
IS-2005-24: Building Trust for Embedded Systems Starting at the Platform Foundation Layer
Security is becoming an essential requirement for all computing devices as we begin to trust and rely upon them to control our environments and protect our information, identity and ultimately our lives. This paper from Certicom discusses the importance of ensuring the reliable operation of devices that include computing features and firmware and/or software. The Trusted Computing Group (TCG) initiative is focusing on a secure computing framework. Techniques for establishing trust are discussed.
IS-2005-23: The Future Success of VoIP – It’s All About Timing
This paper from Symmetricom presents a technical comparison of conventional circuit switched telephone service and packet switched voice telephony. The latter is now called Voice –over-IP (VoIP). Technical issues include timing errors due to transmission delays through the Internet and buffering at network routers. Methods for measuring time delays and establishing synchronization across the Internet are discussed.
IS-2005-22: Is There a Market for Wireless Automation, Telematics & M2M?
In the context of this white paper from Informa Telecoms & Media, telematics, telemetry and machine-to-machine (M2M) communications and systems are all considered to form part of wireless automation. This paper addresses applications of wireless technologies for telemetry and machine-to-machine-to-machine communications. This paper describes many of the new narrowband and wideband technologies and how each of them can be competitive and complementary, depending on needs and requirements of groups of end users. Each can be used alone or in combination with others to produce the desired end results, and each will offer special advantages in different circumstances.
IS-2005-21: Creating New Value with M2M Solutions
This paper, co-written by Harbor Research and e-principles discusses the business potential for machine-to-machine communications. Such communications are enabled by a combination of embedded intelligence in devices and pervasive networks to interconnect these devices. Three levels of applications are defined: remote device monitoring, automated device management, and enterprise-wise integration.
IS-2005:20: Optical Wireless: Secure High-Capacity Bridging
Today's economy depends on the transmission of data, voice and multimedia across telecommunication networks. Optical networks represent the ideal medium for high-bandwidth communications. There are two distinct types of optical communications: fiber optics and optical wireless based on Free-Space Optics (FSO) technology. This paper from LightPointe outlines how optical wireless complements fiber optics in metro networks and local area networks (LANs) to meet projected bandwidth needs with considerably less expense and faster deployment.
IS-2005-19: Development and Evaluation of Fully Automated Demand Response in Large Facilities
The Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) Program, managed by the California Energy Commission, commissioned Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory to develop this report. LBNL conducted trials of technologies for businesses to reduce electricity consumption in response to automatically issued requests in the form of price signals from a utility. Results of the test are presented with recommendations for further research.
IS-2005-18: The American Digital Dream
The Internet Home Alliance commissioned market research among new home buyers to determine their interest in connected home technology, their sources of product information, and criteria for purchases. Technologies preferred by consumers were structured wiring, intercom systems, distributed audio, central vacuum cleaners, and home security. The survey identified improvements needed in the selling process and recommended technology choices, financing options, and certified installers.
IS-2005-17: Understanding the Shifting Demand for Home Networks
The writer observes the demand for home networks is slowing. Only about 10 per cent of broadband households without network say they want one and 5 per cent are likely to install one. The initial surge in demand was generated by early adopters; future demand must be stimulated using a push marketing strategy through incentives and subsidies. This topic paper from The Diffusion Group discusses (1) why demand for home networking is declining, and (2) the implications of this decline to vendors and service providers.
IS-2005-16: The Digital Home: Is It Really Here? You're Kidding, Right?
The term "digital home," has become a seemingly boundless concept that has been expanded to include everything from Internet-connected refrigerators and talking toasters to robots that wash windows on command. Before we can engage in a meaningful dialogue about the nature of the "digital home," we need to define our terms. This paper from The Diffusion Group offers a definition and it also demonstrates that the demand for the digital home is reaching critical mass. Some recommendations for vendors focused on the growing market are also included.
IS-2005-15: The Top Seven Intelligent Communities of 2005
Each year, the Intelligent Community Forum selects communities from around the world to appear on a list of the Top Seven Intelligent Communities of the Year. This paper describes the criteria for judging successful penetrations of Internet access in cities worldwide. The top seven communities for 2005 are named as outstanding for adoption of Internet access to serve citizens individual and community services.
IS-2005-14: Analysis of System Strategies Targeting Near-Term Building America Energy-Performance Goals for New Single-Family Homes
This report from National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) describes an analytical method for reducing whole house energy consumption 50% by 2010 and 90% by 2019. The benefits focus on the impact on housing and on peak energy demand. About 20% of energy savings is eventually expected to be derived from onsite power systems. The analysis involves a tradeoff between equipment costs amortized in a mortgage loan versus utility bills with the goal of minimizing total annual costs. Software is described for performing such tradeoff calculations using a sequential search among component choices.
IS-2005-13: Smart Power: Pervasive Internet Technology in a Changing Energy Market
Deregulation and demand for smart and efficient power have driven technology innovation in the power venue, particularly in distributed resources (DR) technology. This paper from Harbor Research outlines advantages for utilities in networking distributed resources. The author notes that many utilities will need to upgrade facilities soon and should include provisions for networking. Benefits to various utility functions ranging from generation to transmission and distribution to customer services are discussed.
IS-2005-12: Product Pedigree May Be the "Killerest" of Apps
Tracking the pedigree of product components is not a new idea. Traceability has been an essential part of quality assurance for a long time, and is built into the ISO 9000 family of quality standards. But even with the advent of vast desktop computing power, tracing product pedigree has remained a labor-intensive and error-prone process. That's all about to change as we enter the era of smart, connected products- the Pervasive Internet era. This paper from Harbor Research outlines an example of applying device-to-device communications to improve the tracking of processed food through the supply chain.
IS-2005-11: Home Awareness
The term "convergence" implies unification, but you wouldn't know it from today's home technology market - a fragmented landscape full of narrow point solutions, time-sink gadgetry, entertainment obsession, and software/platform incompatibility. In this paper from Harbor Research they present the HomeHeartbeat™ from Eaton as an example of an inexpensive, wireless, intuitive, and useful product with a different approach to the market.
IS-2005-10: Connecting To Your Future: The Networking of Every Manufactured Thing
This research study overview from Harbor Research describes their recent study focused on challenges faced by manufacturers as they move to adopt the next-generation technologies of the real-time enterprise. The study offers a portrayal of the adoption climate, technology issues, business models, and opportunities arising from the convergence of device networking, wireless sensors, machine-to-machine (M2M) communication, and the Internet. The author states that companies with network products will win in the marketplace.
IS-2005-09: Centralized Telecommunications Rooms Offer Economy, Security, Serviceability
Changes in the services delivered over cabling infrastructure in Multi Dwelling Units (MDUs) such as high-speed Internet access and digital High-Definition Television (HDTV) have led to changes in building design and construction. This paper from InfiniSys Inc. presents a proprietary technology, FTTA™ (Fiber to the Apartment) for installing small-diameter conduits in apartment buildings. These conduits are then filled with fiber optic and CAT 5e cables for delivery of command and control, telephony, data, and video services.
IS-2005-08: Caveat Emptor
"Let the Buyer Beware" applies especially to Real Estate transactions. While most commercial are used to physical inspections, the information age presents new challenges that the inspector may overlook. This paper from InfiniSys Inc. presents methods for assessing the quality and usefulness of cabling systems installed in buildings. These techniques are intended to guide purchasers of multiple dwelling unit buildings. Issues that affect the installation are age, location of demarcation point between service provider and building owner, and accessibility of the cables. Building owners might add a "technology fee" to the rent for recovering upgrade costs.
IS-2005-07: CA*net 4 Research Program Update -UCLP Roadmap
CANARIE Inc. is a not-for-profit corporation supported by its members, project partners and the Federal Government. CANARIE's mission is to accelerate Canada's advanced Internet development and use by facilitating the widespread adoption of faster, more efficient networks and by enabling the next generation of advanced products, applications and services to run on them. This document describes how User Controlled LightPath (UCLP) software (developed for CANARIE to manage geographically distributed optical and SONET/SDH cross connects and switches) using web services and workflow can be incorporated with IP routed networks to provide more user control over data flows and queue management. The paper lays out requirements for new features and enhancements to the current implementations.
IS-2005-06: Intelligent Building Operating Technologies
The prevalent practice in the building industry is to spend the minimum on operation and maintenance. The result of this approach is that most buildings have problems that are unknown to the operator and there is no easy way to identify them. This leads to the vicious cycle where building operators are not aware of problems that waste energy, consequently nothing is done to correct them. This paper, developed by CANMET Energy Technology Centre - Varennes, Quebec, a department of Natural Resources Canada, proposes an efficient solution to break this vicious cycle: the use of Intelligent Building Operating Technologies to continuously diagnose equipment problems, provide performance reports and allow the operator to optimize the operation of the building.
IS-2005-05: Open Systems for Homes and Buildings: Comparing LonWorks and KNX
This white paper from i&i Limited traces the origins of LonWorks from Echelon Corporation and European Installation Bus (EIB) - now the mainstay of Konnex (KNX) - originally developed by Siemens. The paper examines their impact in one particular market: home and building electronic systems. Both systems support communications over twisted-pair wiring and power line carrier, but with different data rates. The scope of the study is limited to the application area of KNX: LonWorks is used in a much wider range of applications. The standards and trade association activities of both groups are discussed.
IS-2005-04: ABC's of Home Networking
In its new report, "Worldwide Home Networking 2004-2008 Forecast and Analysis," IDC expects home network households to grow 25 percent to 111 million by 2008. And according to DLNA (Digital Living Network Alliance), research predicts that 52 percent of online households in America will have home networks by 2008. This guide from DSL Forum focuses on explaining the basic components users will need for this home networking explosion, and highlights the various services and applications that users will enjoy with a home network. Applications described include printer and file sharing, telecommuting, multi-player gaming, entertainment, and home automation.
IS-2005-03: A Full House (FTTH) Beats HFC Every Time
The paper by Michael Bowers of Icon Broadband Technologies presents introductory material about fiber optics to the home (FTTH) and hybrid fiber/coax (HFC) distribution. The capacity of fiber optics is generally limited by the electronics at the ends of the fiber. Video is generally frequency modulated when carried on fiber, although some new systems are carrying video as IP packets. FTTH costs are now comparable to HFC, while FTTH offer greater capacity. FTTH will gradually supercede HFC.
IS-2005-02: If You Build It… Will They Come?
An important cost factor in FTTH is the number of homes connected to the fiber and the number of customers who buy services. The customer "take rate" depends on competition and marketing. This paper from Michael Render, President of Render. Vanderslice and Associates presents the case for incumbent telephone companies to install FTTH to offer video services or risk losing customers to other service providers. Successful efforts to influence, measure, model, and forecast FTTH take rates will have a profound impact on the speed at which FTTH proliferates.
IS-2005-01: Solving the “Messy Network” Problem
The M2M industry is predicted by Harbor Research to reach $650 billion in revenue by 2010. This paper from nPhase focuses on the data communications component of M2M describing the challenges of machine-to-machine communications via wireless transmission utilizing cellular telephone networks. Issues include security, routing, and packet format. The paper recommends a particular commercial solution.