According to a market research study by RVA LLC, fiber optics for distribution of home services passed almost 10 million homes as of September 2007, is being marketed to about 8 million, and has been adopted by two million. About one million households receive video by fiber optics and 2 per cent of households get Internet access via fiber optics. The technology for fiber optics distribution varies by company. About 25 per cent of consumers who are offered fiber optics services adopt some. Customers with Internet access via fiber optics are more satisfied than those receiving Internet via cable or DSL (telephone lines). About half of fiber optics Internet access is at 5-10 Mbps for download and 1-2 Mbps for upload. The dominant supplier is Verizon. The writers claim that subscription to fiber optics services stimulates the purchase of various consumer electronics, increases home values, saves energy, and reduced pollution.